Safety Toolbox

Safety Toolbox (51)

 

Wednesday, 07 March 2012 19:51

General Advice on Safe Medication Use

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Your doctors, nurses and pharmacists work hard to keep you healthy, but you are also responsible. Learn what questions to ask. Expect answers--it's your life and your health!

Unfortunately, medication errors happen. They happen in hospitals, in pharmacies, or even at home. And sometimes people get hurt because of these errors.

The more information you have, the better able you are to to prevent errors and to take care of yourself. You have to ask your pharmacists, doctors and nurses about your medications, and you have to expect answers.

Also, if you have any chronic illnesses, pick up one of the consumer guides about medications at a bookstore or from the library. Find out all that you can about your illnesses and the medications you are taking. What you learn will help protect you later.

What you can do: 

At Home
  • Make a list of medications you are taking now. Include the dose, how often you take them, the imprint on each tablet or capsule, and the name of the pharmacy. The imprint can help you identify a drug when you get refills.
  • Any time that your medications change, change your list, too. Double-check the imprints on the tablets and capsules.
  • Also list your medication and food allergies, and any over-the-counter medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements or herbal products that you take regularly.
  • Keep medications in their original containers. Many pills look alike, so by keeping them in their original containers, you will know which is which and how to take them.
  • Never take someone else’s medication. You don’t know if it will interact with your medications, the dose may be wrong for you, or you may be allergic to it.
  • Read the label every time you take a dose to make sure you have the right drug and that you are following the instructions.
  • Turn on the lights to take your medications. If you can’t see what you’re taking, you may take the wrong thing.
  • Don’t store medications in the bathroom medicine cabinet or in direct sunlight. Humidity, heat and light can affect medications’ potency and safety.
  • Store medications where children can’t see or reach them, for example, in a locked box or cabinet.
  • Keep medications for people separate from pets’ medications or household chemicals. Mixups are common and can be dangerous.
  • Don’t keep tubes of ointments or creams next to your tube of toothpaste. They feel a lot alike when you grab quickly, but a mistake could be serious.
  • Don’t chew, crush or break any capsules or tablets unless instructed. Some long-acting medications are absorbed too quickly when chewed, which could be unsafe. Other medications either won’t be effective or could make you sick.
  • To give liquid medication, use only the cup or other measuring device that came with it. Dosing errors can happen if you use a different cup or if you use the cup with other liquids because the cups often are different sizes or have different markings. Also, household teaspoons and tablespoons are not very accurate, which is important with some medications. Your pharmacist may give you a special oral syringe instead.
  • For information on how to throw away medication, click here.

 

 In The Hospital   At the Doctor’s Office
  • Take your medications and the list of your medications with you when you go to the hospital. Your doctors and nurses will need to know what you are taking.
  • After your doctor has seen them, send your medications home with your family. While you are in the hospital you may not need the same medications. Tell your doctor you want to know the names of each medication and the reasons you are taking them. That way, if anyone tells you anything different, you'll know to ask questions, which might prevent errors.
  • Look at all medicines before you take them. If it doesn't look like what you usually take, ask why. It might be a generic drug, or it might be the wrong drug. Ask the same questions you would ask if you were in the pharmacy.
  • Do not let anyone give you medications without checking your hospital ID bracelet every time. This helps prevent you from getting someone else's medications.
  • Before any test or procedure, ask if it will require any dyes or medicines. Remind your nurse and doctor if you have allergies.
  • When you're ready to go home, have the doctor, nurse or pharmacist go over each medication with you and a family member. Update your medication list from home if any prescriptions change or if new medications are added.
  • Take your medication list every time you go to your doctor’s office, especially if you see more than one doctor. They might not know about the medications other doctors prescribed for you.
  • Ask your doctor to explain what is written on any prescription, including the drug name and how often you should take it. Then when you take the prescription to the pharmacy, you can double-check the information on the label.
  • Tell your doctor you want the purpose for the medication written on the prescription. Many drug names look alike when written poorly; knowing the purpose helps you and the pharmacist double-check the prescription.
  • If your doctor gives you samples, make sure that he or she checks to be sure that there are no interactions with your other medications. Pharmacies have computers to check for drug interactions and allergies, but when your doctor gives you samples, this important check may be missed.
Wednesday, 07 March 2012 02:02

High-Alert Medications - Humalog (insulin lispro)

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Extra care is needed because Humalog is a high-alert medicine.

High-alert medicines have been proven to be safe and effective. But these medicines can cause serious injury if a mistake happens while taking them. This means that it is very important for you to know about this medicine and take it exactly as directed.

Top 10 List of Safety Tips for Humalog

When taking your medicine
1. Know your insulin. Humalog is a rapid-acting form of insulin that should be injected below the skin within 15 minutes before or immediately after a meal. Have food ready before injection. After injecting the insulin, do not skip a meal or delay eating.
2. Prepare your insulin. An intermediate- or long-acting insulin is often prescribed with Humalog. Humalog can be mixed with insulin NPH (intermediate-acting insulin), but always draw Humalog into the syringe first. Never mix Humalog with Lantus. Do not mix Humalog with other insulins if using an insulin pen or external pump. Do not vigorously shake insulin before use.
3. Don't reuse or recycle. Dispose of used syringes/needles, pens, and lancets in a sealable hard plastic or metal container (e.g., empty detergent bottle, special sharps container from your pharmacy). When the container is full, seal the lid before placing it in the trash. Do not reuse or recycle syringes/needles or lancets.
4. Don't share. Even if you change the needle, sharing an insulin pen or syringe may spread diseases carried in the blood, including hepatitis and HIV.
To avoid serious side effects
5. Avoid mix-ups. If you use more than one type of insulin, make each vial or pen look different by putting a rubber band around one type of insulin.
6. Check your medicine. Humalog can be confused with NovoLog or Humulin (other insulins). When you pick up your insulin at the pharmacy, be sure it's the right type of insulin.
7. Treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Carry a quick source of sugar, such as glucose tablets, candy, or juice, to treat low blood sugar. Signs of low blood sugar are listed on the other side of the page.
8. Test your blood sugar level. Ask your doctor how often you should test your blood sugar level. Keep a log of your blood sugar levels and how much insulin you take each day. Bring the log with you each time you visit your doctor.
9. Get a periodic lab test. You should have a hemoglobin A1c test at least twice a year to determine how well your diabetes is being controlled. The test shows an average of your blood sugar control over a 6- to 12-week period. Your goal is a hemoglobin A1c of 7% or less.
When you should call your doctor
10. Call for illness or changes in habits. Your insulin needs may change because of illness, stress, changes in eating habits or physical activity, and other medicines you take. Call your doctor if you experience these conditions. Never change your insulin dose unless advised by your doctor.

Signs of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)

  • hunger
  • feeling shaky
  • fast heartbeat
  • lightheadedness
  • dizziness
  • sweating
  • headache
  • confusion
  • irritability

Hypoglycemia is caused by too much insulin or increased work or exercise without eating. Symptoms of hypoglycemia may be different for each person and can change from time to time. Hypoglycemia can affect your ability to think and react quickly, so driving a car could be risky. Severe hypoglycemia can lead to loss of consciousness, seizures, brain damage, or even death. Know the symptoms of hypoglycemia and treat it quickly by drinking juice or a sugar-containing beverage, or eating sugar or candy. Talk to your doctor if hypoglycemia is a problem for you.

 

 Topics Fast Facts
Generic name
  • insulin lispro (pronounced IN soo lin LYE spro) (no generic available)
Common brand names
  • Humalog, Humalog KwikPen, HumaPen, other Humalog pens
Type of insulin, onset, duration
  • Rapid-acting insulin; begins working in 15 to 30 minutes and lasts for 5 hours or less
Uses
  • Treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus to improve control of blood glucose
When to take the insulin
  • Humalog should be injected under the skin within 15 minutes before or immediately after a meal
Usual dose
  • The frequency and dose of insulin are unique to each individual
  • Daily doses of insulin are based upon body weight, diet, activity level, age, individual sensitivity to insulin, type of diabetes (1 or 2)
  • Multiple daily doses according to blood glucose levels are typical
Injecting the insulin
  • See safety tip #2 to determine if Humalog can be mixed with another insulin before injection
  • Ask your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist to show you how to draw your dose of insulin into a syringe and inject it, select the dose on a pen device and inject the insulin, or use an insulin pump
  • Before injecting a dose, take the chill off refrigerated insulin by gently rolling the vial, pen, or cartridge between the palm of both hands (do not shake the insulin vigorously)
  • Using a syringe or insulin pen, inject the insulin below the skin (not in the muscle) in the upper thighs, upper arms, buttocks, or abdomen; the site of the injection should be changed (rotated) with each dose
  • Don't use Humalog if the insulin appears cloudy instead of clear and colorless
Special instructions and precautions
  • Meals should be eaten no longer than 15 minutes before or immediately after injection
  • Follow the diet prescribed by your doctor
  • Keep your eating habits and exercise regular
  • Tell the doctor who prescribes insulin about any new medicines you are taking
  • Do not share insulin pens, cartridges, or syringes/needles with others
Safety during pregnancy/breastfeeding
  • Talk to your doctor about managing your diabetes during pregnancy and breastfeeding
Storage and disposal
  • Store unopened vials, cartridges, and pens in the refrigerator until first use (do not freeze)
  • After first use, store vials in the refrigerator or at room temperature; discard after 28 days
  • After first use, store cartridges and insulin pens at room temperature (do not refrigerate); discard after 28 days
  • Safely dispose of used syringes/needles, pens, and lancets (safety tip #3)
Most common side effects
  • Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar); see signs and treatment of hypoglycemia above
  • Low potassium blood levels, fast heart rate, fatigue, headache, hunger
Other conditions to report to your doctor
  • Chest pain or palpitations, persistent fatigue, confusion, numbness of mouth, lips, or tongue, muscle weakness or tremors, vision changes, flu-like symptoms
  • Swelling, itching, redness, warmth, or pain at the injection site
Herbals that should not be taken with Humalog
  • These herbals can lower your blood glucose: chromium, garlic, gymnema
Prescription medicines that should not be taken with Humalog
  • Many prescription medicines can affect your blood sugar levels and insulin needs
  • Tell your doctor about all the medicines you take, particularly new medicines
Special tests your doctor may prescribe
  • Patients are often asked to test their own blood glucose using home testing equipment, test their urine for sugar and acetone, and take their blood pressure regularly
  • To monitor your diabetes, your doctor may periodically test your blood levels for hemoglobin A1c, potassium, cholesterol, and substances that measure kidney function

This information does not replace the need to follow your doctor's instructions and read the drug information leaflet provided with your prescription.

This project was supported by grant number R18HS017910 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not represent the official views of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

Friday, 20 January 2012 20:13

Get Financial Help with Purchasing Medicine

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Tough economic times make it hard for people to fill their prescriptions and take the medicine as directed. There are no easy solutions to the high cost of medicines. But there are often safer alternatives than cutting back on your medicine, skipping doses, taking less than the recommended dose, or not filling your prescription at all. If you find it hard to pay for your prescription medicines:

Talk to your doctor. Don't be embarrassed to tell your doctor if you have trouble paying for your prescriptions. He might be able to prescribe a less costly medicine that will work for you. He also may have samples of medicine that he can give you, at least in small supplies to hold you over. If your doctor gives you samples, always ask for written directions on how to take the medicine. Keep the directions with the sample medicine.

Search out assistance programs. There are many patient assistance programs that might be able to help you obtain medicines at no cost or at a significant discount. Look at these websites that steer patients to public and private support programs that may be useful.

Partnership for Prescription Assistance

http://pparx.org

Needy Meds

www.needymeds.com

RxAssist

www.rxassist.org

RxHope

www.rxhope.com

Patient Advocate Foundation

http://www.copays.org

FreeDrugCard.US

http://freedrugcard.us

Together Rx Access

http://www.togetherrxaccess.com

Also visit the website of the drug manufacturer who makes your medicine. Many companies offer coupon discounts or other forms of assistance (for those who qualify). In addition, look for groups that support patients with your particular disease. A few examples are provided:

Mental Health America

http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/prescription-assistance 

The American Kidney Foundation

http://www.kidneyfund.org

The Epilepsy Foundation

http://www.aesnet.org/files/dmfile/PatientAssistanceProgramsFINAL2010.pdf

National Organization for Rare Diseases

www.rarediseases.org/patients-and-families/patient-assistance

freerxTough economic times make it hard for people to fill their prescriptions and take the medicine as directed. There are no easy solutions to the high cost of medicines. But there are often safer alternatives than cutting back on your medicine, skipping doses, taking less than the recommended dose, or not filling your prescription at all. If you find it hard to pay for your prescription medicines:

Talk to your doctor. Don't be embarrassed to tell your doctor if you have trouble paying for your prescriptions. He might be able to prescribe a less costly medicine that will work for you. He also may have samples of medicine that he can give you, at least in small supplies to hold you over. If your doctor gives you samples, always ask for written directions on how to take the medicine. Keep the directions with the sample medicine.

Search out assistance programs. There are many patient assistance programs that might be able to help you obtain medicines at no cost or at a significant discount. Look at these websites that steer patients to public and private support programs that may be useful.

Partnership for Prescription Assistance

http://pparx.org

Needy Meds

www.needymeds.com

RxAssist

www.rxassist.org

RxHope

www.rxhope.com

Patient Advocate Foundation

http://www.copays.org

FreeDrugCard.US

http://freedrugcard.us

Together Rx Access

http://www.togetherrxaccess.com

Also look for groups that support patients with your particular disease. A few examples are provided:

The American Kidney Foundation

http://www.kidneyfund.org

The Epilepsy Foundation

http://www.aesnet.org/files/dmfile/PatientAssistanceProgramsFINAL2010.pdf

National Organization for Rare Diseases

www.rarediseases.org/patients-and-families/patient-assistance

Friday, 20 January 2012 18:04

Keep Track of Your Medicine

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Keeping an up-to-date record of your medicines may help protect you from a mistake. First, it helps you and your family remember all the medicines you are taking. Next, it helps your doctor, nurses, and pharmacists make sure that the medicines prescribed for you can be taken safely together. A list also helps make sure that important medicines you take at home will be continued if you are hospitalized. Finally, your medicine list will help your doctor determine if any illness or symptoms you experience could be related to the medicine you take.

To create an up-to-date medicine list, think about the doctors you visit and the medicines each one has prescribed for you. Then think about your health conditions and the over-the-counter and prescription medicines you take for each one. Finally, think about the vitamins and herbal products you take to stay healthy.

Below is an example of a form you can use to help organize your medicine list.

For a PDF version of this form click here.

For a Word document click here

 

medform1

medform2

medform3

medform4

Thursday, 19 January 2012 03:31

Unsafe Medical Abbreviations

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Download: ISMP's List of Error-Prone Abbreviations, Symbols, and Dose Designations

The abbreviations, symbols, and dose designations found in this table have been reported to ISMP through the USP-ISMP Medication Error Reporting Program as being frequently misinterpreted and involved in harmful medication errors. They should NEVER be used when communicating medical information. This includes internal communications, telephone/verbal prescriptions, computer-generated labels, labels for drug storage bins, medication administration records, as well as pharmacy and prescriber computer order entry screens. The Joint Commission (TJC) has established a National Patient Safety Goal that specifies that certain abbreviations must appear on an accredited organization's do-not-use list; we have highlighted these items with a double asterisk (**). However, we hope that you will consider others beyond the minimum TJC requirements. By using and promoting safe practices and by educating one another about hazards, we can better protect our patients.

AbbreviationsIntended MeaningMisinterpretationCorrection
μg Microgram Mistaken as "mg" Use "mcg"
AD, AS, AU Right ear, left ear, each ear Mistaken as OD, OS, OU (right eye, left eye, each eye) Use "right ear," "left ear," or "each ear"
OD, OS, OU Right eye, left eye, each eye Mistaken as AD, AS, AU (right ear, left ear, each ear) Use "right eye," "left eye," or "each eye"
BT Bedtime Mistaken as "BID" (twice daily) Use "bedtime"
cc Cubic centimeters Mistaken as "u" (units) Use "mL"
D/C Discharge or discontinue Premature discontinuation of medications if D/C (intended to mean "discharge") has been misinterpreted as "discontinued" when followed by a list of discharge medications Use "discharge" and "discontinue"
IJ Injection Mistaken as "IV" or "intrajugular" Use "injection"
IN Intranasal Mistaken as "IM" or "IV" Use "intranasal" or "NAS"
HS

hs
Half-strength

At bedtime, hours of sleep
Mistaken as bedtime

Mistaken as half-strength
Use "half-strength" or "bedtime"
IU** International unit Mistaken as IV (intravenous) or 10 (ten) Use "units"
o.d. or OD Once daily Mistaken as "right eye" (OD-oculus dexter), leading to oral liquid medications administered in the eye Use "daily"
OJ Orange juice Mistaken as OD or OS (right or left eye); drugs meant to be diluted in orange juice may be given in the eye Use "orange juice"
Per os By mouth, orally The "os" can be mistaken as "left eye" (OS-oculus sinister) Use "PO," "by mouth," or "orally"
q.d. or QD** Every day Mistaken as q.i.d., especially if the period after the "q" or the tail of the "q" is misunderstood as an Use "daily"
qhs Nightly at bedtime Mistaken as "qhr" or every hour Use "nightly"
qn Nightly or at bedtime Mistaken as "qh" (every hour) Use "nightly" or "at bedtime"
q.o.d. or QOD** Every other day Mistaken as "q.d." (daily) or "q.i.d. (four times daily) if the "o" is poorly written Use "every other day"
q1d Daily Mistaken as q.i.d. (four times daily) Use "daily"
q6PM, etc. Every evening at 6 PM Mistaken as every 6 hours Use "6 PM nightly" or "6 PM daily"
SC, SQ, sub q Subcutaneous SC mistaken as SL (sublingual); SQ mistaken as "5 every;" the "q" in "sub q" has been mistaken as "every" (e.g., a heparin dose ordered "sub q 2 hours before surgery" misunderstood as every 2 hours before surgery) Use "subcut" or "subcutaneously"
ss Sliding scale (insulin) or ½ (apothecary) Mistaken as "55" Spell out "sliding scale;" use "one-half" or "½"
SSRI

SSI
Sliding scale regular insulin

Sliding scale insulin
Mistaken as selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor

Mistaken as Strong Solution of Iodine (Lugol's)
Spell out "sliding scale (insulin)"
i/d One daily Mistaken as "tid" Use "1 daily"
TIW or tiw 3 times a week Mistaken as "3 times a day" or "twice in a week" Use "3 times weekly"
U or u** Unit Mistaken as the number 0 or 4, causing a 10-fold overdose or greater (e.g., 4U seen as "40" or 4u seen as "44"); mistaken as "cc" so dose given in volume instead of units (e.g., 4u seen as 4cc) Use "unit"

 

Dose Designations
and Other Information
Intended MeaningMisinterpretationCorrection
Trailing zero after decimal point (e.g., 1.0 mg)** 1 mg Mistaken as 10 mg if the decimal point is not seen Do not use trailing zeros for doses expressed in whole numbers"

 

Dose Designations
and Other Information
Intended MeaningMisinterpretationCorrection
Drug name and dose run together (especially problematic for drug names that end in "l" such as Inderal40 mg; Tegretol300 mg) Inderal 40 mg

Tegretol 300 mg
Mistaken as Inderal 140 mg

Mistaken as Tegretol 1300 mg
Place adequate space between the drug name, dose, and unit of measure
Numerical dose and unit of measure run together (e.g., 10mg, 100mL) 10 mg

100 mL
The "m" is sometimes mistaken as a zero or two zeros, risking a 10- to 100-fold overdose Place adequate space between the dose and unit of measure
Abbreviations such as mg. or mL. with a period following the abbreviation mg

mL
The period is unnecessary and could be mistaken as the number 1 if written poorly Use mg, mL, etc. without a terminal period
Large doses without properly placed commas (e.g., 100000 units; 1000000 units) 100,000 units

1,000,000 units
100000 has been mistaken as 10,000 or 1,000,000; 1000000 has been mistaken as 100,000 Use commas for dosing units at or above 1,000, or use words such as 100 "thousand" or 1 "million" to improve readability

 

Drug Name AbbreviationsIntended MeaningMisinterpretationCorrection
ARA A vidarabine Mistaken as cytarabine (ARA C) Use complete drug name
AZT zidovudine (Retrovir) Mistaken as azathioprine or aztreonam Use complete drug name
CPZ Compazine (prochlorperazine) Mistaken as chlorpromazine Use complete drug name
DPT Demerol-Phenergan-Thorazine Mistaken as diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (vaccine) Use complete drug nam
DTO Diluted tincture of opium, or deodorized tincture of opium (Paregoric) Mistaken as tincture of opium Use complete drug name
HCl hydrochloric acid or hydrochloride Mistaken as potassium chloride
(The "H" is misinterpreted as "K")
Use complete drug name unless expressed as a salt of a drug
HCT hydrocortisone Mistaken as hydrochlorothiazide Use complete drug name
HCTZ hydrochlorothiazide Mistaken as hydrocortisone (seen as HCT250 mg) Use complete drug name
MgSO4** magnesium sulfate Mistaken as morphine sulfate Use complete drug name
MS, MSO4** morphine sulfate Mistaken as magnesium sulfate Use complete drug name
MTX methotrexate Mistaken as mitoxantrone Use complete drug name
PCA procainamide Mistaken as patient controlled analgesia Use complete drug name
PTU propylthiouracil Mistaken as mercaptopurine Use complete drug name
T3 Tylenol with codeine No. 3 Mistaken as liothyronine Use complete drug name
TAC triamcinolone Mistaken as tetracaine, Adrenalin, cocaine Use complete drug name
TNK TNKase Mistaken as "TPA" Use complete drug name
ZnSO4 zinc sulfate Mistaken as morphine sulfate Use complete drug name

 

Stemmed Drug NamesIntended MeaningMisinterpretationCorrection
"Nitro" drip nitroglycerin infusion Mistaken as sodium nitroprusside infusion Use complete drug name
"Norflox" norfloxacin Mistaken as Norflex Use complete drug name
"IV Vanc" intravenous vancomycin Mistaken as Invanz Use complete drug name

 

SymbolsIntended MeaningMisinterpretationCorrection


Dram

Minim
Symbol for dram mistaken as "3"

Symbol for minim mistaken as "mL"
Use the metric system
x3d For three days Mistaken as "3 doses" Use "for three days"
> and < Greater than and less than Mistaken as opposite of intended; mistakenly use incorrect symbol; "< 10" mistaken as "40" Use "greater than" or "less than"
/
(slash mark)
Separates two doses or indicates "per" Mistaken as the number 1 (e.g., "25 units/10 units" misread as "25 units and 110" units) Use "per" rather than a slash mark to separate doses
@ At Mistaken as "2" Use "at"
& And Mistaken as "2" Use "and"
+ Plus or and Mistaken as "4" Use "and"
° Hour Mistaken as a zero (e.g., q2° seen as q 20) Use "hr," "h," or "hour"

 

**These abbreviations are included on TJC's "minimum list" of dangerous abbreviations, acronyms and symbols that must be included on an organization's "Do Not Use" list, effective January 1, 2004. Visit www.jointcommission.org for more information about this TJC requirement.

Permission is granted to reproduce material for internal newsletters or communications with proper attribution. Other reproduction is prohibited without written permission. Unless noted, reports were received through the USP-ISMP Medication Errors Reporting Program (MERP). 

Monday, 16 January 2012 21:23

Watch Medication Safety Video's

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Monday, 16 January 2012 19:54

High Alert Medication Learning Guides

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Just a handful of drugs are considered high-alert medicines. These medicines have been proven to be safe Warfarin teaching page imageand effective when taken properly. But they can cause injury or death if a mistake happens while taking them. This means that it is vitally important for you to know about this medicine and take it exactly as intended.

During a study on medication safety in community pharmacies, the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) identified which medications should be included on this list of high-alert medications. For some of these medications, the Institute created safety pamphlets for consumers. By clicking on the medications listed below, you can access these pamphlets, which can help keep you safe while taking these medications.

The leaflets are FREELY available for download and can be reproduced for free distribution to consumers. 

Learning Guides (also available in Spanish)

Friday, 18 November 2011 00:45

Tips For Measuring Liquid Medicines Safely

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Liquid

Liquid pdf cover
              print pdf                        

Medicines that are in a liquid form can be prescribed by a doctor or purchased over- the counter(OTC). Liquid medicines are sometimes referred to as elixirs, syrups, solutions, or mixtures. They are commonly used in children or adults who have difficulty swallowing. In some cases, the drug itself is absorbed better in a liquid form, so even people who do not have difficulty swallowing might use liquid medicines.         

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